Old News: Twitter can be used for Botnet Command & Control

Shocking but true…today a researcher discovered that Twitter has been used for command and control of a botnet which may have been used by Brazilian hackers to steal online banking login information.  Kudos to the researcher, Jose Nazario, who found this.  It was an interesting read to say the least.  The bot would basically look for base64 encoded commands on a Twitter account to download malware via RSS feeds with obfuscated (shortened) URL’s.  Interesting…sounds a lot like Robin Wood’s tool KreiosC2 which was released at DEFCON 17.  I even did this demo showing what else? Base64 encoded commands.  Ironically, I showed off the first version of this code at Notacon 6 back in April of this year.  Keep in mind, KreiosC2 can be used for legitimate tasks like controlling things at home remotely via Twitter.  I highly recommend you read Robin’s detailed write-up on how KreiosC2 functions.

What I find fascinating (like most things in security) is that now that there has been a real confirmed case of using Twitter for botnet C2 (Command & Control) the media seems to be jumping on it and even trying to determine “why it took so long for hackers to take Twitter to the dark side”.  Well, you can’t say we didn’t warn you.

The point that Robin, myself and others were trying to make way back in April was that this is a real threat and the bad guys have probably started to use Twitter for C2 even before Robin put out the code!  We were hoping that by releasing the code Twitter (and others) would see this as perhaps an early warning of things to come and perhaps prepare some defense for it (yes, we know it’s hard to put a defense together for something like this).  Now that we have a confirmed case used for malicious purposes we hope Twitter takes this seriously and can combat future C2 channels used for very bad things.  It always takes something bad to happen to create change…where have you heard that before? :-)

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Sex Offenders in IL Banned from Social Networking Sites

There was an interesting post on Mashable today about a new law that was just passed in Illinois by the governor Pat Quinn.  Basically, it bans sex offenders from using social networking sites.  The problem is that social networking is so loosely defined that this could mean any news site or blog.  Think about Facebook Connect or anything that shows a profile picture with media links and/or text.  In addition, how would this stop a sex offender from using an alias and/or fake name on these sites (if you can even define what these sites are)?

There is some interesting conversation brewing around this one especially around the fact that just by peeing in public you are considered a sex offender in 13 states!

Read the entire article on Mashable here.

Your Facebook Profile is Already Public

As Facebook’s privacy settings continue to evolve, many have discussed the increased openness as users gain more options to share content publicly.  All the while, though, ongoing problems with the Facebook Platform detract from the perceived level of control over privacy.

In essence, you should already think of your profile information as public.  First, any application you authorize has carte blanche access to your data.  You have no way to limit this access apart from avoiding authorization to start with.  Second, if a friend authorizes an application, that application likely has the same amount of access to your profile via your friends’ sessions.  You can limit the available data if you have not also authorized the application.

Finally, the current architecture of the Platform leaves users vulnerable to attacks that allow others to harvest profile information.  I have demonstrated such attacks before, and the more I investigate them, the more ridiculous the situation becomes.

This morning I found yet another XSS hole in a top 10 Facebook application (by monthly active users).  However, this was another FBML application, and as with several other cases, I could not immediately replicate my old XSS+CSRF attack for stealing profile data.  With a bit of experimenting, though, I realized another trick.  Rather than trying to insert script directly, I took a slightly different approach for executing this script.  This new technique ensured script execution, at the price of easy access to the session secret.  Using referrers, though, I gained access to the session secret as well.  This does require a user to have referrers enabled for JavaScript, but I’m fairly certain that’s the default on most browsers.

Not only did this new trick enable the attack on that particular application, it allowed me to launch the attack using another top 10 application that I already knew had an XSS hole.  Both of these applications also allow for clickjacking installs, meaning I could once again relaunch the full attack if I so desired.

Keep in mind that you need not visit an attack page for this to affect you.  If you’ve not limited unauthorized applications or the attack uses an application you’ve already installed, your data is vulnerable if a friend visits an attack page.

In short, an attacker could launch pages right now (this is zero-day stuff, people) that silently harvest profile information and photos from nearly any Facebook user.  Between these hacks and the threat of rogue applications, you should regard anything you post on Facebook as public information.

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View proposed changes to the Facebook SRR/ToS

fb_governanceYou can view and comment on changes to the Facebook SRR (Statement of Rights and Responsibilities or better known as “Terms of Service”) located on the Facebook Governance Page.  You can download and review the redlined proposed changes here.  The deadline for comment is 12pm PST August 18th.  It is important for Facebook users to review these new terms as there are significant changes to the SRR and the wording that is used.  Most of the SRR will affect your privacy as a Facebook user.

For example, make sure you note the following:

1. For content that is covered by intellectual property rights, like photos and videos (“IP content”), you specifically give us the following permission, subject to your privacy and application settings: you grant us a non‐exclusive, transferable, sub‐licensable, royalty free, worldwide license to use any IP content that you post on or in connection with Facebook (“IP License”).  This IP License ends when you delete your IP content or your account (unless your content has been shared with others, and they have not deleted it).

3. When you add an application and use Platform, your content and information is shared with the application.  We require applications to respect your privacy settings, but your agreement with that application will control how the application can use the content and information you share.

4. When you publish content or information using the “everyone” setting, it means that everyone, including people off of Facebook, will have access to that information and we may not have control over what they do with it.

You should already know these things though, right?  :-) Remember: Anything you post to Facebook private or not…consider it public information.  You can leave your comments on the Facebook Governance Page or feel free to comment here.  We would love to hear your opinion of these upcoming changes.

Staying Safe & Secure on Twitter

We recently added a presentation that Tom Eston did at the Cool Twitter Conference in Cleveland last week to the presentations section.  You can also find it on SlideShare.  This presentation should give you some good tips on how to use Twitter safely.  Stay tuned for a printable guide and video similar to the Facebook Privacy & Security Guide.

Tom was also interviewed by Dan Hanson from the Great Lakes Geek Show about his presentation as well as other social media security issues.

Twitter and Facebook DDoS was Targeted at One User

The following article was just posted over at CNET News regarding the massive DD0S (Distributed Denial of Service) that targeted Twitter, Facebook, LiveJournal and more.

Via CNET News:

A pro-Georgian blogger with accounts on Twitter, Facebook, LiveJournal and Google’s Blogger and YouTube was targeted in a denial of service attack that led to the site-wide outage at Twitter and problems at the other sites on Thursday, according to a Facebook executive.

Read the entire article here.

New Research Released on Koobface

Today Trend Micro released probably the most comprehensive research yet on the Koobface social network worm.  This research details how Koobface works, the malicious payloads it carries and how this worm has spread to all the major social networks.  The most recent victim being Twitter.   Most alarming is that Koobface will still continue to evolve and is the beginning of a new generation of malware targeting social networks.

Check out the article and download the PDF for the full report.  We will also have this link posted in the “Research” section of the site.

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