Don’t Simply Build a More Open Facebook: Build a Better One

Geek Level: Not overly technical, but aimed at developers and entrepreneurs.

Frustration with Facebook has appeared to reach a tipping point recently. Changes to the service have always drawn criticism and even outrage from various users, but after the latest updates, I’m seeing more people talk seriously about leaving the site. Consequently, some people have begun looking for alternatives, and a few have even started trying to build their own.

I’m among those looking for alternatives. I’ve held back from closing my account several times in the past due to a large network of friends, but my concerns continue to rise. Few other options exist, though, and any service looking to compete directly with Facebook faces an uphill battle.

Consider this post my advice to anyone who wants to tackle that challenge.

1. Avoid Pitfalls in Planning

When I’ve observed people discussing Facebook competition thus far, they invariably seem to fall prey to what I see as two mistakes. First, they focus almost entirely on the development side: what back-end technologies to support, what formats to use for data exchange, protocols for such interactions, etc. All of these aspects are important to consider, but I contend that you need to start by looking at the user side of the equation: mapping out the features you will sell to average people, designing interfaces with usability and simplicity in mind, creating processes and workflows that anyone can understand.

Second, many critics of Facebook focus on how the company fails to be “open,” a term that has long since entered buzzword territory. Ask a developer about their Facebook replacement, and they’ll probably start by telling you how it uses the Open Stack, with tools such as OpenID, OAuth, and Activity Streams. I have no problem with using these formats in a new site, but once again, you ultimately have to focus on your users. If you want your product to find mainstream adoption, you’ll have to convince average consumers that using it is worth any difficulty involved in leaving Facebook. Most people don’t care so much about whether technology is “open” or “closed” so long as it works. (Case in point: iPhone.) Rather than starting your plans by picking which “open” standards you’ll use, start by designing a better social networking service and then determine how “open” specs will help you build that service.

2. Think Through Your Setup

While I don’t recommending starting with too many technical details in planning, you still need to think through how the general structure of your application will work. Social networking services tend to involve a number of interlocking components, and the nature of the content involved can invoke problems other services don’t normally face.

For instance, nearly every Facebook alternative I’ve heard about thus far is built to be a distributed system, connecting multiple servers or platforms together into an aggregated network. This offers a number of advantages over Facebook’s centrally controlled setup.

But it also brings a number of disadvantages and hurdles that ought to be addressed. Say your social graph on a distributed service includes 500 friends, with profiles spread across 100 different servers. What sort of performance will you get when you need to pull data from 100 sources to build a news feed? If you use caching, how will you handle data retention and expiration to respect others’ privacy? What sort of fail-safe measures will be in place if a few servers are down? How will you establish trust relationships or handle malicious users? How will security vulnerabilities in one server affect others on the network? How will you ensure every server stays updated with the latest patches or features? All these questions and more come into play with distributed social networking, and I’ve yet to see many of them satisfactorily addressed by current offerings.

3. Learn from Academic Researchers

Many people in the academic community are producing research that addresses how people interact both offline and online, as well as how people understand concepts of privacy and social networking. As websites continue to reshape the fabric of our society and Facebook in particular affects notions of privacy, you simply can’t afford to ignore these studies.

While I wouldn’t want to neglect the work of anyone in this field of academics, I particularly respect and recommend works by danah boyd. For example, her talks on “Making Sense of Privacy and Publicity” and “Privacy and Publicity in the Context of Big Data” are must-read material for anyone looking to enter the world of social networking development. I’d also advise learning about the Helen Nissenbaum‘s concept of “contextual integrity,” explained well in a series of articles by Michael Zimmer. Fred Stutzman and Kaliya Hamlin (though she’s strictly not in academia) are just a few more of the many people I’ve come across who are contributing to our understanding of social media. Get familiar with more than just the technical implications of social networking: understand the social side.

4. Relationships are Not Digital

I understand that the Internet has created new possibilities and methods for people to relate to one another, and I’m not arguing there’s anything inherently wrong with those developments. But I do think some online applications generally employ constructs that fail to resemble many offline relationships. For example, many online connections with other people are essentially binary – friend or not, follower or not. Making such a connection often involves a subscription to the other person’s entire stream generated updates, regardless of type or content. Control over those updates can be limited or confusing.

I recognize that providing effective communication channels that avoid being cumbersome but also reflect social norms is a daunting prospect. It’s no wonder most of the sites we’ve seen thus far have followed previous online models of communication, such as the simple dichotomy of public discussions and private messaging. But I think it’s time we reevaluate some of our ideas about how sharing content should look and seek out new methods for staying in touch.

Of course, with this point I’m really advocating for a Facebook alternative that addresses a certain market: an online service that helps people leverage technology to stay better connected with their offline friends and associates. Remember, my overall message here is to build a better Facebook. It’s not enough to make things more open, or offer more privacy controls, or integrate with more sites. You need to provide more value. And personally, I see a great opportunity to provide more value in finding better ways for people to stay in touch. As someone who lives in a different state than the majority of my friends and family, I have enough trouble keeping up with people even with Facebook, but getting rid of my account would make that task more difficult. I would love to see a service that improves on Facebook in this area, and I imagine many others would as well.

One other note on this point: I would love to see a service try and tackle the issue of multiple identities with a more elegant solution than letting users create multiple accounts.

5. Don’t Overdo Privacy Settings

Given the uproar over Facebook’s lack of certain privacy controls and the amount of time I’ve spent talking about privacy controls, this point may seem a bit strange. But “privacy” is not simply about having granular, detailed settings for every bit of content or feature on a site. Too many choices will easily overwhelm users, and while powerful controls may help enterprises manage permissions on resources, most people don’t have the time to manage a plethora of menus and check boxes.

This ties back into previous advice on understanding the social side of social networking. Don’t simply rely on the sort of controls that you as a developer or systems administrator use for managing data. In some cases, you may even need to simplify things by eliminating layers. For instance, Facebook provides separate settings for both the photos application as a whole and the photo albums within the application. I would argue getting rid of the former and displaying available albums based on the current context.

From a high level, I think privacy controls need to clearly but concisely communicate two things to a user: who can access the data and where (or how) may the data be publicized. Whatever settings you include need to be simple enough to maintain usability but clear enough to avoid any unpleasant surprises.

6. Reduce the Noise

Facebook and other services thrive on people sharing content. These sites push people to produce more content and increase the flow of information. However, I would contend that while access to increased information can bring many benefits, we have to balance that notion with the understanding that more knowledge is not always better and that increased information does not always need to broadcast. Many online users are suffering from severe information overload, and better filters alone are not going to solve the problem. It’s time we dialed back some on the production of content to begin with.

Please don’t misunderstand my position here: I’m not trying to put an end to Wikipedia or become some sort of content police. What I am saying is that our obsession with streams and the real-time web may be driving us to lose sight of other priorities. Just because your service can track and broadcast every activity your users perform doesn’t mean that it should.

7. Integrate with Facebook

This is one bit of advice I’ve not seen anywhere else thus far: If you want to beat Facebook, use Facebook’s features against it. Over the last several years, Facebook has provided more and more access to information for third-party developers. I’ve not seen any provisions that would prevent another social networking service from taking advantage of these methods.

I’ve often heard people talk about the idea of “taking your social graph with you,” but that’s not really the problem right now. It may be a bit complicated, but you can pretty much export your entire social graph from Facebook. The real problem is this: where do you take it to? The only “import” function for most sites involves scanning a list of e-mail addresses to find other users.

With Facebook’s APIs, though, you can simply connect your other social networking profile with your Facebook profile. Be warned that you should not simply assume people who do this will want any Facebook friends who sign up for your site to know about their profile or be their friend on your site. But you at least have options to make the transition much smoother.

Also, since people criticize Facebook for taking in more information than they give out, you can simply make sure data originates outside of Facebook. Your application can push status updates, messages, and content to Facebook, and then you already have a copy on your service. Besides, nowadays you can pull a user’s inbox, updates, notifications, and so on from Facebook as well.

8. Value What Your Users Value

Building a Facebook alternative includes many details to worry about, such as monetization, advertising, and privacy. But never forget what makes any service valuable: the people that use it. If your product becomes popular, that means people will be using it to share content they deem valuable and trusting you to store content they deem valuable. You will have to earn that trust and work hard to maintain it.

Communicate with your users in a helpful, honest way. Give them meaningful support options. Provide them with default privacy settings that protect them rather than surprise them. It can be fine to let users share everything with everyone if they want, but let the users decide and empower them to choose the path they want rather than push them towards one approach.

And above all, keep providing a service that people find useful. The real reason so many people still use Facebook is that the benefits outweigh any difficulties or privacy concerns. If you’re going to compete with Facebook, you’ll have to top that.

(Oh and one last bit of advice: come up with a good, professional name for your start-up. Please.)

How Facebook’s New APIs Affect Old Security Issues

Geek level: Fairly technical at times, but makes some general points.

Based on my experience in researching Facebook security, I was quite interested in the security ramifications of Facebook’s recent developer announcements. Some of the analysis I’ve seen thus far from others actually involve rediscovering previously reported concerns with the old platform. But Facebook’s updates include a brand-new authentication scheme for applications, possibly affecting the sort of application attacks first described last year. From a security perspective, I wondered, how much has actually changed?

New Interfaces

To begin, let’s recap some of the new developer tools. First, Facebook is phasing out its old authentication scheme. Previously, applications would generate a session by forwarding clients to a particular Facebook URI. If the user chose to authorize the app, Facebook would forward the user back to the application context, passing along a valid session key (and session secret). The application would then use that session key to generate API requests, signing each with either the session secret or application secret.

Now, Facebook has rolled out OAuth 2.0, a lightweight adaption of OAuth 1.0 and OAuth WRAP. The spec defines several models for authenticating resources, and Facebook uses the Web Server Flow. This process actually involves two major steps. First, the application again forwards clients to a Facebook URI, though this time with a list of specific permissions desired. If the users grants that list of permissions, Facebook again forwards them back to the application with a session key. However, the application must now use the session key to request an access token from Facebook. This step is done directly from the application server, and the request must be signed by the application secret.

In addition to OAuth 2.0, Facebook added new API methods for accessing data. Developers can now use a simple JSON interface to make requests using a valid OAuth access token. At the moment, applications can still interface with the old REST API, but Facebook is requiring developers to use the new permissions model (and hence OAuth) starting June 1, and it’s likely all applications will eventually use the new Graph API for data access and publishing.

I’ve noticed another aspect to the shifts in developer resources: Facebook has hardly talked about FBML recently, and the new developer documentation barely references it. The new JSON APIs are tailor-made for JavaScript use, which would only make sense in an iframe canvas application. I’m not speaking with any insider knowledge, but based on several recent observations, I expect Facebook to eventually deprecate FBML-based apps and shift developers entirely to iframe canvas apps or external websites. (The new, JavaScript-friendly interfaces unite methods used for canvas apps and external sites that previously worked with the Facebook Connect SDK.)

Security and OAuth

While the original OAuth spec has been around for some time, Facebook’s David Recordon helped write the new version, and the first draft came out right around the time Facebook announced their implementation. Consequently, OAuth 2.0 is a rather young protocol, and it’s still under development. I personally find it disheartening that a protocol handling third-party authentication for the personal data of 400 million users has a section entitled “Security Considerations” that still only contains the note, “Todo.” Why would security be an afterthought in this arena?

Facebook’s implementation does have one significant strong point, though. The two-step flow they use makes it essentially impossible to forge a request for an access token. While you may be able to hijack the first step in authentication, getting a usable access token requires the application secret, and if you have that code, you’ve already broken the application itself.

Unfortunately, the benefits end there. While I’m not yet aware of any new vulnerabilities presented by OAuth replacing the old system, using OAuth does not affect many of the previously described application attacks.

Security and Facebook Applications

In fact, attacks on applications will likely get much easier under the new setup. First, since Facebook is pushing developers towards HTML-based applications rather than FBML, exploiting cross-site scripting (XSS) holes will be simpler. Taking advantage of an FBML app requires several tricks, but in a regular HTML context, one can simply insert JavaScript and go.

Second, while the new APIs make requests easier for developers, they also make cross-site request forgery (CSRF) easier for attackers. Since OAuth only handles the initial authentication, once an app has valid session, XSS attacks can hijack that session and issue requests back to Facebook using the app’s access token. This behavior is essentially identical to previous attacks, except that now one must use the access token and make Graph API requests instead of using a session secret to make REST API requests.

Of course, executing such an attack requires an XSS vulnerability in the application to start with, and one may question how common that scenario will be in practice. If my past research is any indication, the chances are very high. Last September I published a series of posts known as the Month of Facebook Bugs which recorded exactly this sort of vulnerability in various Facebook applications. By month’s end, the series demonstrated exploitable holes in nearly 10,000 applications, including six of the top ten apps by monthly active users.

Last month, after reading an article about security on Facebook, I decided to launch the Month of Facebook Bugs Reloaded. My initial plan was to find 30 more vulnerabilities and publish a list of the affected apps, but I’ve since decided against investing the time necessary to build such a list. However, the first afternoon I started working on the project, I found exploitable holes in half of the current top ten applications, specifically: FarmVille, Birthday Cards, Texas HoldEm Poker, Cafe World, and PetVille. Ironically, the FarmVille issue came from the same parameter I’d exploited last year, but this time on a new interface. All of the new issues have been reported for patching.

If you’re not familiar with application attacks, you may wonder how much damage could actually be done. And on this point, things have actually changed slightly. The code I demonstrated last year allowed an attacker to silently and invisibly hijack the session of an application the user had authorized and issue any valid API request back to Facebook. This previously included requests for a user’s private profile information and access to viral channels for spreading links – similar to the more recent vulnerability I described in the Platform itself. Note that the spreading links part could be used for spreading full-fledged malware.

However, Facebook’s new permissions model means that many applications won’t have full access to user information or publishing abilities. Still, any application which does have broad permissions will be a valuable target. But in addition to this change, Facebook has taken much of the previously private profile information and made it public, which means it remains accessible to an attacker, but harvesting is be less of a security issue since it’s now public to begin with.

Looking Ahead

Facebook’s recent updates demonstrated the company’s broad vision for integrating with sites across the Internet. As Facebook expands its reach, though, the surface of possible attack vectors will grow as well. Each site that makes use of Facebook’s powerful APIs will become a target for attackers looking to exploit those APIs. While cross-site scripting problems tend to be rather common on websites, they become even more dangerous when they open the door to compromising a Facebook user’s application session.

Thus far we’ve seen a few attacks against Facebook users that take advantage of applications, but none have been that widespread. I predict we’ll see this change over the next year or two. The size of Facebook’s user base and the trust relationships established on the service make it a very appealing target for attackers, and reduced development friction will likely lead many of them to realize the potential of attacking applications rather than the site directly. Also, the ubiquity of Facebook’s pop-up login windows for authenticating on other websites (often with minimal window chrome) will probably make pop-up imitations a more common scheme for phishing attacks.

Furthermore, other security issues that I’ve not described here still loom for Facebook. I’ve talked before about some of the issues with Facebook’s new Open Graph Protocol previously, and I am awaiting patch confirmation before discussing a few new vulnerabilities in the Platform itself. These problems not only allowed me to replicate the silent data harvesting I’d demonstrated with the issue reported back in March, but opened up new attack possibilities, such as rendering an arbitrary login form with a simple URI.

Any site operating at the scale of Facebook is bound to face security problems and increased scrutiny from researchers. But here I’ve chosen particularly to focus on issues with Facebook applications and Facebook-enhanced websites. Attacking Facebook directly can be quite difficult, but insecure applications open up powerful indirect channels, and so far the security track record for applications is not encouraging. That track record could become even more important over the next few months as new APIs spread and old security issues persists.

Facebook is Not Secretly Installing Apps from Other Websites

Updated 4:55 p.m.

Earlier today, Apple news site Macworld published a story with the ominous headline, “Facebook’s new features secretly add apps to your profile“. That claim will naturally get attention, and other sites have started the news.

There’s just one problem: The story appears to be incorrect.

I am not saying that Macworld’s writers are trying to mislead or that they intentionally reported incorrect statements. But I do think they did misunderstood some Facebook behaviors in their zeal to protect user privacy.

The behavior described in the article has nothing to do with “new features” from Facebook and existed under the old Facebook Connect model. When you visit a website that integrates with Facebook using application APIs, that site may load content from Facebook, such as buttons to login to the site with your Facebook account. Facebook then records a visit and lists the website’s application under the “Recently Used” section of your Application Settings page. Apart from the new instant personalization partners (, Pandora, and Yelp), the external website does not automatically receive any of your Facebook information. Your visit will be included in the application’s active user count, but your name will not show up on the application’s information page. In fact, visiting that info page for any application has the same result – Facebook shows the app as recently used, but doesn’t transfer any data to the app.

The traditional sense of “adding” or “installing” a Facebook application is that you allow the app access to your profile by clicking through a standard prompt. For applications on Facebook, this is the familiar page asking to “Allow Access,” which did recently receive a makeover and some new features most of the time. For websites outside of Facebook, this happens when you click “Connect with Facebook” or “Login to Facebook” and then agree to the prompt that pops up. Once you’ve taken this extra step beyond just visiting, the site can then identify you and access certain information about you. Applications within Facebook can identify you and access certain public information automatically if you reach them via certain channels, such as by clicking on a friend’s news feed story. Again, all of these behaviors have been around for quite a while.

On the description page for an application, you’ll see a list of friends who have added the app. That list only includes friends of yours who have taken the extra step of “installing” the application as described above. If you only visit a Facebook-enhanced website or Facebook application but don’t agree to the extra prompt, you will never show up in that list or the general list of an application’s users.

Some people may be worried by the fact that Facebook can record visits to other websites that include Facebook content, and those concerns have credibility. But Facebook has this ability for years. Any time a website includes “like” buttons, lists of fans, or other data loaded from Facebook, footprints are left behind. This is not much different from tracking that happens with third-party advertising networks – except that Facebook knows much more about your identity. If you want to avoid tracking entirely, log out of Facebook before visiting other websites.

Readers of this blog know that I have often criticized Facebook over privacy and security issues. But I find it very important to be accurate and avoid sensationalism in such criticisms. If reports include mistaken or overblown problems, users become more confused, appropriate criticisms can be discredited, and Facebook has a chance to gloss over other legitimate concerns. Unless I misunderstood what Macworld described, I think this is one case where fears over supposedly malware-like behavior are not justified. We need to leave this story behind and focus on real issues facing Facebook users.

Note: To clarify, what I describe here does not apply to the three instant personalization partner sites:, Pandora, and Yelp. Those sites’ applications are “installed” as soon as you visit unless you opt-out from the instant personalization program or block the apps individually.

Update: Macworld has added a response from Facebook, and the company says a bug temporarily caused external websites to show up in a user’s application list. Apparently my misunderstanding was that these sites’ applications don’t normally show up as “Recently Used,” but their appearance did not indicate any difference in functionality and the technical details I gave describing how such applications work remain unchanged. In other words, seeing these sites under “Recently Used” was consistent with their normal behavior. Facebook confirmed that no data was shared with the applications and that users’ visits were never visible to anyone else.

The Social Hacking Guide to Understanding Facebook Privacy

After Facebook’s sweeping announcements at the 2010 f8 conference, many people have been reexamining the content they’ve posted on Facebook and who can access that content. This process has helped raise awareness of new behaviors that affect privacy expectations, but has also caused some users to discover old issues for the first time. As with many Facebook updates, the ensuing responses have at times led to confusion and misunderstandings. In this guide, I hope to provide some clarity in understanding how privacy works on Facebook.

This guide is intended for a general audience, so I will try hard to explain ideas clearly and not get bogged down by technical details. However, I will also be focusing on the concepts behind various privacy controls, but not necessarily stepping through all available settings. If you want more on the latter, along with recommendations for those settings, I would point you to the Facebook Privacy & Security Guide maintained by Tom Eston at Social Media Security, a site where I’m also a contributor.

In case you’re not familiar with Social Hacking, it’s a blog about privacy and security issues in online social networking written by Joey Tyson (a.k.a. theharmonyguy), a security engineer at Gemini Security Solutions. Note that all opinions are those of the author and do not reflect in any way on Gemini or any other organization. Finally, note that this guide is licensed under a Creative Commons License. That means you’re welcome to share it with others for noncommercial purposes if you cite Social Hacking or theharmonyguy with a link to and under similar terms. If you want to publish a large portion of the guide on a site that includes advertising, please contact me first.

1. Facebook is Not Magic

I’ve spent countless hours over the last few years studying the technical details behind Facebook’s privacy controls and looking for ways an attacker could override them. All that investigation leads me to state that Facebook is not magic, in both a positive and a negative sense. First, while Facebook employs all sorts of technology to record your activity on the site and the information you post there, they cannot magically discover all of your secrets and post them for the world to see. The biggest form of control you have over your content on Facebook is not sharing it to begin with.

Of course, participating in Facebook often carries a variety of social pressures that may prevent from simply “not sharing,” and Facebook may record data or combine pieces of data in ways you don’t anticipate. Also, remember that your friends are humans, and even if you restrict all of your content to just your friends, they can still copy that content and post it elsewhere beyond your control. That’s the sort of social problem no technology can completely stop, and comes down to the trust you place in your friends. However, Facebook can’t hack into your e-mail account or copy your wall calendar, so if Facebook knows something about you, that knowledge probably involved you or a friend of yours.

On the flip side, no website is totally bulletproof in securing information. As someone involved in security research, I know that even “secure” websites pose risks. And yet, I routinely share my credit card number with merchants as I shop online. Is it possible that someone could hack those merchants or intercept my data and steal my credit card number? Certainly. A thief could also sneak up behind me on the street and try to grab my wallet, but that doesn’t mean I never take walks. I generally avoid walks, though, in certain neighborhoods where I don’t trust the environment. Similarly, I try to be very careful about what websites I trust with my personal information. When you post private content on Facebook or anything other social networking site, I can’t promise you that no one else will ever see that content. What you share with Facebook comes down to how much you trust Facebook with that data. This guide may help you in making such decisions, but ultimately, you have to make them.

2. Facebook Wants You to Share

Security guru Bruce Schneier gave an excellent lecture earlier this year about privacy and different generations. In the talk, he related a hypothetical story from social media researcher danah boyd about a friend who discloses information shared privately in order to gain better social standing with others. He then noted that Facebook is like that friend, gaining much revenue and market position from sharing the content you give it with other parties. As Schneier put it, we are Facebook’s product, not their customers.

You may ask, why would Facebook want to share my data? You may use Facebook simply to chat with friends that about things don’t seem of much importance to a large, high-tech company. I would give three main answers. First, the more Facebook knows about you, the more they can target the advertisements they show you. Companies buying ads want to make sure they reach an audience most likely to buy a certain product and value word-of-mouth recommendations. Right now, if I wanted to, I could buy an ad campaign on Facebook that appears for 25-year-old men who are interested in women, engaged or married, speak English, have a college degree in physics, like both Lord of the Rings and U2, and are not already members of a certain Facebook group I created. Facebook tells me that about 80 users fit that description, and estimates that at average pricing my ad would see 1-2 clicks per day. Facebook has offered this level of ad targeting for several years now.

Second, many companies are looking for data on behaviors and trends across large groups of people, and not simply for advertising opportunities. Since millions of people login to Facebook every day and share information about their interests, habits, activities, friends, and ideas, the company can build huge sets of data to answer general questions about their users.

Finally, Facebook can use your information to let other services provide a more targeted experience as well. For instance, if you list your favorite music artists on your profile, Pandora can use that list to generate an online radio station tailored to your specific tastes without requiring you to re-enter all those artists.

Note that I’m simply describing realities here, not commenting on whether they’re useful or creepy. Some people find Facebook’s targeted advertising disturbing, some people see it as a way to see relevant ads for products they may find of interest. But my main point is simply that Facebook has a vested interest in you sharing information about yourself and your life. They do provide some degree of control over what happens to the information your share, but ultimately, they benefit most from you sharing the most.

3. Some Content is Always Public

Some parts of your Facebook profile are always considered “publicly available information” (also called PAI) by Facebook, and ultimately, you don’t have control over whether another person or application can see that information. In practice, it may be difficult for others to find such data or Facebook may even prompt them for certain authorization first. But regardless of any settings or appearances, you should always remember that Facebook does not consider the data private and it may be shared via other channels you’re not aware of.

As of May 2010, the following content in your Facebook profile is always PAI: your name, your profile picture, and your connections. The “connections” part currently includes your friends, your family, your relationships, your current city or hometown, your education history, your work history, your activites, your interests, the music you like, the movies you like, the books you like, the TV shows you like, and any page that has a Facebook “Like” button you’ve clicked.

4. Focus on Settings Close to Content

While Facebook’s myriad privacy settings can provide great flexibility over certain bits of data, they can also cause great confusion. But generally, the most important setting for any piece of content is the one closest to that content. In other words, while you may come across privacy settings in many corners of Facebook, you’ll often find one right next to an individual bit of information, and that’s usually the one you should worry about most for that particular data.

For instance, when you post a status update or link on your profile, you’ll see a little padlock icon next to the “Share” button. That padlock sets who can access the status or link. When you create a photo album or edit its properties, you’ll find a “Privacy” box, and that box indicates who can access the photos in that album.

Are there exceptions to this rule? Yes, and I describe some major ones in the next few sections. But for a starting point, those little padlocks that sit right alongside your statuses, links, albums, and so on are the biggest controls you have over who can see your content. As a general rule, the more complicated settings you may come across will not override these individual settings if a person tries to load your content via the Facebook website.

Facebook does provide other privacy settings that control the visibility of certain content on your profile, including the public information I described before, but that’s not the same as access. I’ve posted several tricks in the past that demonstrated how people could still load content that seemed to be hidden but still had individual, padlock controls marked as “Everyone.” Such a setting really does mean everyone, and Facebook treats the content as part of the publicly available information described before. Rely most on the padlocks to control who sees what.

The most important exceptions to this advice involve how applications access your data. Facebook distinguishes between what people can access browsing the Facebook site as usual and what applications or websites can access by communicating with Facebook through other technical methods, and so far I’ve only covered the former case.

5. Applications Act on Your Behalf

A few years ago, Facebook added some ways for people to write their own code that made use of Facebook data. Originally these were just applications added to Facebook, such as the quizzes or games you still often see on the site. But more recently, Facebook has added methods for other websites to interface with user information as well. How much data all of these applications could access depended on users “authorizing” them.

I think the best way to understand the access applications have is to treat them as ambassadors or liaisons between you and Facebook. You generally establish this setup when you authorize the application, which happens whenever you click to allow access for applications inside of Facebook (such as those games and quizzes) and “login” or “connect” your Facebook on other websites. An authorized application then has much the same access to data that you do, and may post to your Facebook as if you were posting.

Until recently, this meant your applications could access profile information, photos, links, notes, etc. even if they were set to “Friends Only.” Now, Facebook is in the process of shifting applications to a setup where they have to ask for all the levels of access they want. Of course, you don’t get to choose those levels of access, and an application may not work if you don’t approve them all. You also can’t place blanket restrictions on every application you might use.

Another aspect to application access comes into play when a friend uses one and you don’t. While you don’t have much control over data access for applications you use, Facebook does allow you to set across the board whether your friends’ applications can see your data as your friends would, if you haven’t used the applications as well.

One of the most recent changes to Facebook involves certain the company authorizing certain sites automatically, a feature called “instant personalization.” These sites (currently, Pandora, and Yelp) then have automatic access to your publicly available information when you visit them. Applications within Facebook have had this sort of access for a while on most visits. Facebook gives a setting to block the behavior for the three external websites, but they may still receive some of your data when friends use them – an aspect controlled by the settings described above.

Facebook does give you the power to block specific applications, including external websites such as, Pandora, and Yelp. When you block an application, it will won’t be able to tell you exist – your friends won’t even see your name in the context of that application.

6. Applications are Not Facebook

When you use an application, such as a quiz or a game on Facebook, you are interacting with code written by someone not part of Facebook. (The company does treat a few specific features as “applications,” such as Photos or Notes, but these are generally marked as such and cannot be removed.) Most of the content you generate within that application, such as your result on a quiz or your score in a game, is stored by the application outside of Facebook. Ultimately, who accesses that information and how long it stays online are up to the people who wrote the application, not Facebook.

In your “Application Settings” on Facebook, you will find many specific settings that relate to individual applications, including whether they can be seen on your profile. These control the ways an application interfaces with Facebook, such as the boxes on your profile or whether it can publish links on your wall, but you put your trust in the application to provide privacy and security beyond these aspects. I’ve found many applications that allow an attacker to access information you might think would only appear on your profile. Also, an insecure application could be hijacked to access Facebook data you’ve authorized it to see.

7. You Have to Live Your Life

Anyone who reads my blog or Twitter feed will realize that I care greatly about privacy issues with Facebook, and I spend a great deal of time understanding the controls available to Facebook users. But when people ask me for recommendations on Facebook, I often include a closing bit of advice: You still have to your life. Think before you post, know what your settings do, try to stay current with changes and understand where your data goes. But don’t get paranoid or spend more time adjusting your Facebook than actually communicating with your real-life friends.

Facebook is only one tool for keeping up with people. If using Facebook becomes too much of a chore, maybe you should find another tool. But whether you use Facebook or not, don’t let all the news reports and check-boxes cause you to lose sight of the big picture. Focus on living a life worth sharing before you worry about what you share on Facebook.

Why I Care if Others Care About What They Ate for Breakfast

I find that the only people saying privacy is dead seem to be those named in its will. Social media researcher danah boyd highlighted some of these conflicts of interest when she admonished, “No matter how many times a privileged straight white male technology executive pronounces the death of privacy, Privacy Is Not Dead.”

Privacy is not simply about confidentiality. Privacy is about control – you having control over the nature, disclosure, dissemination, and usage of your information. Privacy is about ensuring data exchanges happen under certain norms and in appropriate contexts.

Many Silicon Valley executives, however, seem to think users should embrace sharing most of their data with the entire web. This attitude is typified in a comment by blogger Robert Scoble: “We are all going to have to learn new ways to deal with privacy. Personally I think privacy is dead. Get over it. If you want it to be private don’t put it on a computer and don’t put it on the Internet. My entire life is public. If you want, you can search for naked photos of me (there are three out there).”

But can we really extrapolate the experiences of certain social media personalities and apply them to web users in general? Would we be as comfortable with a thirteen-year-old girl commenting that you could find three naked photos of her online?

In fact, the incongruence between Scoble’s public living and the worlds that even other US bloggers navigate became apparent in a post by Michelle Greer on geolocation. Greer does not oppose geolocation services, but she does note how they can increase risks for a person dealing with stalkers. And such risks are not eliminated by the person simply avoiding these tools – if trusted friends start using them without careful thought, an attacker can exploit data beyond their target’s control.

Robert Scoble may be able to have his entire life public, and in an ideal world, perhaps everyone else could too. The difficult reality, however, is that people in a broad range of circumstances require a greater degree of privacy to thrive socially – and at times, even to survive.

Of course, Scoble is far from alone in his outlook. I often see reactions to various stories that include sentiments I can describe at best as oversimplifications or misunderstandings. In some cases, these ideas seem to carry an appalling amount of arrogance as well. I’ll give four examples with short rebuttals:

  • “No one cares about what you ate for breakfast.” What if you died of poisoning one morning? Suddenly your family, the police, and many other people would care very much about your breakfast. But while I could offer dozens of other similar scenarios, they can distract from a more important point: Who are you to decide whether anyone cares about my breakfast? Why should I or others rely on your judgment in determining the value of the information that I choose to share? We all know people who care about details as mundane as our meal choices simply because of their relationship with us, even if that knowledge seemingly provides them no tangible benefit (unlike the poison investigation).
  • “What use would basic profile data be to a malicious third party? Disclosing it would not really matter.” This perspective includes an informal logical fallacy familiar to many in the scientific community: an argument from incredulity. In other words, since the questioner cannot imagine a certain scenario happening, it must be impossible. As before, I could easily frame a few situations where simple information disclosure could cause serious consequences for a given user (and the Google Buzz roll-out provided real-life examples) but doing so would fail to address the real issue: Only a profile’s owner has the knowledge and background required to outline all possible implications of disclosing their particular bits of information to various other parties.
  • “If you don’t want everyone to see certain content, you shouldn’t post it online to begin with.” Nearly everyone who routinely interacts with websites sends them content that carries expectations of confidentiality. Would you be comfortable with sites publicly sharing your credit card information? After all, you’re not liable for unauthorized charges, a point Blippy noted after a few of its customers’ credit card numbers leaked out on Google. The flexible nature of the Internet has always allowed people to share content in a way that limits the audience. Nothing technological has to prevent users from enjoying degrees of disclosure between encrypted e-mail transfer and publicly indexed web pages.
  • “Participating in social media is a choice. If you don’t like Facebook/Twitter/etc., don’t use it.” This advice assumes that personal choice is the only determining factor for using a social media service. Under the same assumption, I could argue that driving a car, using a mobile phone, having indoor plumbing, and buying groceries instead of farming are also choices no one is forced to make. Many Facebook users could leave the service in the sense that doing so would not affect their physical survival, but many of them cannot leave Facebook without significant negative effects on social, relational, and perhaps even economic aspects of their lives. Once again, few of us are in any position to evaluate such situations for other individuals.

In essence, no social media executive can assume that he or she understands the ramifications of reducing user control over information. No algorithm can make the same social judgments a human being can. And yet, what sort of trends do we see in the market? As an example, Facebook has gradually widened the definition of “publicly available information” while also adding features that aggregate and publicize data unexpectedly.

As Bruce Schneier notes in an excellent video presentation, however, you and I are not Facebook and Google’s customers. We are their products. They sell information about us, and hence they have a business interest in us sharing more information with more people. Yet for us, this approach tends to increase the amount of noise we deal with. I would submit that the market for online social networking needs to shift towards a model where business interests somehow align with users’ best interests. Obviously such a proposal is easy to state but difficult to implement and monetize, but it’s time we started rethinking how we approach these services.

For instance, many social networking sites have been structured more around technological paradigms than social ones. Most sites include a private messaging feature generally intended for confidential, one-on-one communication, then a method for sharing information that’s generally public, but perhaps includes features for limiting the audience. Perhaps we should design a more fluid communications system that reflects the sort of individual and group interactions we make offline or shoehorn into existing online services.

Another practical step towards ensuring user privacy would be to implement restrictive default settings. Which would be worse for the user: posting content privately that was intended to be public, or posting content publicly that was intended to be private? Rather than require a user to complete long lists of privacy settings prior to engaging with a service, keep content locked down by default and make it simple for a user to then open up their content more broadly.

Privacy is not dead, but many of today’s web applications seem intent on killing it. We desperately need alternatives that empower users with intuitive, defensive privacy controls. Note that by calling for better privacy models, I’m not saying we should avoid public sharing. If users want to live as Robert Scoble, a social media service need not stand in their way. (While Facebook once had more restrictive privacy defaults, it also used to prevent most content from ever leaving the site.) But rather than assume most people are Scobles, we need to find value in also enabling less-public sharing and protect the information that users themselves value.

I do agree with Scoble on one point: “We are all going to have to learn new ways to deal with privacy.” I also see a grand opportunity for entrepeneurs to help shape those “new ways” while keeping privacy very much alive.

Facebook’s Open Graph Still Faces Semantic Web Hurdles

Geek level: Fairly technical. Aimed at web developers and security researchers.

In the wake of last week’s Facebook announcements, people have begun dissecting more of the technical details involved and adding various critiques. One point of discussion has been Facebook’s use of the buzzword “open,” with some observers feeling the description masks certain negative aspects of the new Open Graph.

But amid all the debate about openness, critics and supporters alike seem at times to inadvertently conflate three different (albeit related) technologies. First, the Open Graph Protocol defines a structure for website authors to provide certain bits of metadata (such as title, type, description, location, etc.) about their pages. Second, Facebook is expanding their “social graph” concept by building a database of connections among people, brands, groups, etc. The label “Open Graph” has been variously applied to this new map. Finally, the social networking site has introduced new methods for accessing these stored connections as part of their Graph API.

From a technical perspective, each of these offer great potential. But as they are currently being implemented, they still face difficulties that may hinder Facebook’s vision of the Semantic Web. In fact, while Facebook may have brought certain Semantic Web ideas to a more mainstream audience, they have not addressed some of the issues that have stymied advocates of similar technologies – including criticisms found in Cory Doctorow’s famous “Metacrap” essay from 2001. But first, I think it worthwhile to explore some of the details of Facebook’s three new components.

According to the spec’s website, the Open Graph Protocol is an RDFa vocabulary created by Facebook, though “inspired by” a few other related specs. Four properties are required for every OGP-enabled page, providing a title, type, image, and canonical URI. Optional fields include a description, a site name, location data, certain product codes, and contact information. Since OGP uses RDFa, each of these properties are specified via “meta” tags in the page’s “head” element.

Anyone is free to implement OGP in their pages or consume it with their services, as the technology is published under the Open Web Foundation Agreement 0.9. In that sense, the spec is certainly “open,” though some seem disappointed that the label is applied to a vocabulary apparently developed privately by one company without feedback from others. While Facebook does note already published standards they drew on for inspiration, OGP at times seems to be reinventing the wheel a bit. (Update: One reader pointed out to me that Facebook’s approach uses RDFa to specify data in a separate namespace, so my criticism may have been unjustified.) For instance, the HTML spec has always included a way to specify a page’s description via a “meta” tag – a feature many abused in the past to improve search rankings.

Facebook will not be immune to such abuse in their new namespace for metadata. Doctorow’s first problem with “meta-utopia” was that people lie. In my testing thus far, the OGP properties of title, canonical URI, and site name are essentially arbitrary. This means that not only can page authors add “like” buttons for other pages, they can add false metadata that produces deceptive feed stories. For instance, a feed story may say that a user “liked The Rock on IMDb” when the story links actually point to a malware host. If Facebook wants to build a semantic search engine, they will still have to deal with old black hat SEO tricks.

In addition to OGP properties, Facebook checks pages for an “fb:admins” parameter that sets which Facebook users can administer analytics and information for a given website. Since the site requires no further authentication, I find it a bit disconcerting that a simple XSS hole could provide an attacker with access to so much power for a site that heavily integrates with Facebook. I was glad to see that redirection techniques or spoofed metadata did not enable cross-domain application of “fb:admins”, but I’m still unsure of how some cross-domain (or cross-subdomain) issues will factor in to Facebook’s graph technologies.

Ironically enough, Facebook has yet to add OGP metadata to their own pages, and the new “like” button will not work for pages on domains.

While the OGP can help authors describe individual pages, it does not include any way of establishing links between pages. That’s where Facebook’s ambitions become perhaps a little less “open.” The Open Graph of connections between Facebook profiles and OGP-enabled pages is housed on Facebook’s servers. The company does offer many simple ways for other applications to add or access edges of the graph, including the new Graph API. But Facebook is the gatekeeper, and some fear what that control could produce. Also, while Facebook has updated their privacy policy to reflect recent feature changes, their terms of service still include a clause about accessing data using “automated means.” Consequently, I’m still not entirely certain how much of the Open Graph can be automatically replicated.

Apart from concerns about control, however, the new Open Graph opens many possibilities by providing a set of links between pages and people with far more structure than the hyperlinks crawled by search engines today. But several factors may limit the possibilities. If sites do not implement OGP metadata in their pages (and that will include a significant percentage for the foreseeable future), Facebook has to infer data from the page. As already noted, data poisoning could become a significant factor. Maintaining a complex database will also require other types of maintenance, and currently the Open Graph can lead to issues of redundancy or caching of expired data.

If all website authors sought to protect their visitors and provide accurate, structured information on their pages, Facebook’s Open Graph would be a fairly certain success – but then again, it may not even be needed in that case. Meanwhile, since we have to take into account a range of problems and attacks when indexing online content, Facebook will still have to address basic problems encountered by past implementations of Semantic Web ideas. The company’s vision for mapping connections is ambitious, but plenty of work still remains.

Privacy and Security of Open Graph, Social Plugins and Instant Personalization on Facebook

As most major news organizations and blogs have covered the changes that Facebook has made from a high level, I wanted to focus this post specifically on Facebook’s “Open Graph”, “Social Plugins” and “Instant Personalization”.  In my opinion, these are three changes that will significantly impact the way you and your friends use Facebook.  As I usually do, I will provide a point of view from the eyes of an attacker.  As we all know, its only a matter of time before these new features begin to be abused by attackers.

Open Graph
The first significant change is Facebook’s “Open Graph”.  Open Graph is a significant departure from Facebook’s previous data connection strategy which used to be centered around Facebook Connect.  All of that is gone and replaced with Open Graph.  Open Graph basically allows partner websites and Facebook applications to share your public information and the public information of your friends with each other.  The other big change which is a departure from Facebook Connect is that developers can hold your data indefinitely.  The requirement was previously only for 24 hours (and we all know developers weren’t really holding to that anyway).

What’s also interesting is that Facebook has implemented an API called the Graph API. The Graphs API is how developers can easily integrate their applications with this new stream of user data.  In fact, now you don’t even need a Facebook account to search the Open Graph.  For example, will show you 25 recent status updates.  Note that these status updates are set to Everyone and it seems that Facebook has put a limit on data you can retrieve with one query (this will change most likely or you can figure out ways around this).  Before you had to log in to Facebook to do a search or use some creative Google queries for this information.  This is good news for attackers, spammers and data miners.  Facebook has made publicly available information even easier to search for and in my opinion, is going to start competing with Google for personalized search results.  Stay tuned, Open Graph is going to be a huge area that I will be focusing my research on.  As a penetration tester, my job just got easier.  Thanks Facebook! :-)

Social Plugins
Social plugins are small bits of code (the “Like” button for example) that you probably have been seeing all over the web.  What Facebook has done is added simple plugins that web site developers can easily integrate.  Also note that there are many more plugins available besides the “Like” button.  Simply run the wizard, fill in a few lines and you’re done.  Lets take the “Like” button as an example.  If you are signed into Facebook (or not) you will see the button just like you do on Mashable:

Clicking on the button while you are signed in to Facebook posts a notice to your news feed that you like Mashable.  The button also works when you are not logged into Facebook by prompting you to sign in.  This is similar to how Facebook Connect worked.  If you want to “unlike” the page, simply click the “Like” button again.  Already, someone has found a potential security problem with the “Like” button that could possibly be abused by spammers.  Keep in mind that these social plugins are part of Facebook’s strategy to take over the world integrate their Open Graph protocol.  Once Open Graph starts to be more popular, you will see lots more attacks leveraging these new plugins.

Instant Personalization
Lastly, we have “Instant Personalization”.  Instant Personalization is the feature in which Facebook has “pre-approved” third-party web sites to gain access to your public information just by visiting them.  There is very little information available currently on how Facebook approves third-party sites.  Once you allow these sites full authorization, they have the same access that any developer would have to your Facebook information.  For example, here is what it looks like when you surf to Yelp.  You will get a pretty blue bar that shows up at the top of your browser window:

You should notice that you have the option to “Learn More” or say “No, thanks”.  You will also notice how instantly, if any of your friends on Facebook are using Yelp you can see any of their activity just below the blue bar.

Now something interesting happens once you visit one of these pre-approved sites.  I noticed that a Facebook application (in this case Yelp) gets installed and allows it permissions to post.  You don’t have to even click “No thanks”, the application is already installed.  Pandora and Microsoft Docs work the same way.  In fact, when testing the Microsoft Docs personalization I noticed the Facebook application that gets installed sets its privacy permissions to EVERYONE and allows one-line posts on your behalf.  This means that anyone can see any activity that is posted by that application.  Keep in mind that these controls are all being closely looked at by attackers and I suspect that we will see some hacks and/or abuse of this new personalization system soon.

Instant Personalization Privacy Settings
Facebook has put in a global “opt-out” check box in your privacy settings.  Of course in typical Facebook fashion they have buried this setting so it’s hard to find.  Ironically, just as I was writing this post Facebook changed the location of this setting.  So now you have to go down one more level by clicking an additional button to get to the setting (see the screen shot below).

There are some very important caveats about this setting.  First, this setting is enabled by default. Yes, that’s right.  If you have a Facebook account this setting is checked right now and you are opted in.  I had thought that Facebook would have learned from the Beacon fiasco but it appears they haven’t.  Secondly, just because you “opt-out” doesn’t mean your information is safe.  Just like other Facebook applications if your FRIENDS use Yelp, Pandora or Microsoft Docs these sites can still get your public information or anything else you have made available to be shared with friends.  To completely opt-out you need to MANUALLY block each and every application (in this case Yelp, Pandora and MS Docs).  It goes without saying, this is a huge pain and I look forward to the long list of complaints and privacy concerns regarding this psudo opt-out.  The other problem is that I have already seen posts by Facebook that they already have partner sites that they are going to announce soon.  What this means is that if you want to truly “opt-out” you need to keep up to date on all the new third-party partners with Facebook and manually block their applications.  This is a terrible control in my opinion.

So where are these settings?  Click on Account –> Privacy Settings –> Applications and Websites –> Instant Personalization (Click the Edit Settings button).  In the screen shot below you can see the box that you need to uncheck.

UPDATE: Yvan Boily on Twitter had mentioned that you should also uncheck every box under “What your Friends can share about you” in your privacy settings (in my guide on this is what I recommend as well).

I will be updating my Facebook Privacy & Security Guide over on to reflect all of these changes soon.  In the meantime, tell your friends on Facebook about these settings and check out a few other good articles on the recent changes.  Here are three articles I recommend reading: Pros and Cons of Today’s Facebook Announcements by theharmonyguy, How to Opt Out of Facebook’s Instant Personalization (with a nice video walk-through) by the EFF and Facebook Open Graph: What it Means for Privacy by Mashable.

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Pros and Cons of Today’s Facebook Announcements

Earlier today, Facebook held a developer conference called f8 and took the opportunity to announce a number of new features that impact both developers and average users. I’ve assembled a non-exhaustive list of several important changes the company described, along with a summary of each change and a quick pro/con evaluation from my perspective. I’ll be looking at these and other new features in-depth over the next several days.

The Open Graph

While Facebook has often talked about how its users friend relationships form a “social graph,” the company is now focused on creating a broader “open graph.” This is essentially a map of connections between people, companies, products, websites, and so on. When you list your interests and tastes on your profile, you’re helping build this structured database of links.


  • In many ways, this idea echoes the vision of a “Semantic Web” that others have outlined in the past. In fact, World Wide Web creator Tim Berners-Lee has long called for building a similar structure.
  • Facebook’s implementation includes simple ways for sites to add usable information about them, and they’ve built a simple interface for accessing data on pieces in the graph.


  • While this graph may be “open” for contribution and access, it’s definitely controlled by Facebook alone. That setup has obvious business, political, and philosophical implications, but centralized administration of such a graph has technical trade-offs as well, such as dependence on a single point of failure.
  • Facebook’s new version of the Semantic Web still carries many of the same issues as older versions, such as major privacy concerns, data poisoning, and data inconsistencies.

Universal Social Experience

In today’s keynote, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg often talked about the high-level goal of enabling social experiences for users across the entire web.  By combining the latest features Facebook offers, any site can bring identity and relationships into its own ecosystem.


  • Much of the information that you encounter on sites today is generic and requires that you spend time sorting or searching to make the site more relevant. With data from your part of the open graph, sites could customize and optimize in a way that’s tailor made for you, providing more relevant content right away.
  • This approach greatly reduces friction on other sites as well, since you won’t have to go through the tiresome process of setting up a new account, remembering another password, and trying to find people to connect with or useful content.


  • One person’s feature is another person’s privacy violation. However well-intentioned other sites may be, their “social experiences” can fail to recognize the value of anonymity or take into account a rightful degree of user control.
  • As others have pointed out previously, since this type of optimization often centers around your establish relationships, it can create an echo chamber effect and further isolate socioeconomic or ideological groups from each other.

Instant Personalization

This is the marketing term for a feature Facebook first earlier this year. The company has partnered with certain “pre-approved” websites that can now automatically identify a Facebook user at their first visit. The sites can also access what Facebook classifies as publicly available information.


  • This is a more specific example of Facebook’s vision for social experiences reducing friction. The feature is aptly named “instant,” as it basically sets up a user’s account on another site without any interaction, a behavior some may find very convenient.
  • From a privacy standpoint, Facebook has included a global opt-out under users’ application privacy settings, and clearly indicates when this sort of automatic authentication takes place with a banner at the top of the site.


  • The feature still raises a number of privacy concerns, and essentially repeats several of Google’s well-documented mistakes with the launch of Buzz. And while a full opt-out does exist, users are opted in by default. This personalization will likely be the source of many surprises and violated expectations.
  • Facebook controls who has access to the setup, and currently it’s not entirely clear how sites can become pre-approved or how much the program will expand in the future. The privacy controls also lack some clarity, as the opt-out does not cover information shared by friends who use instantly personalized sites.

Social Plugins

Any web site now has access to a range of simple tools that add Facebook features, such as “liking” a page and publishing approved stories to a user’s news feed. These widgets also replace some of the options previously offered to developers under Facebook Connect.


  • Facebook has built these plugins with ease of deployment in mind, and they drastically reduce the complexity of integrating with the service. Many developers will be pleased with the simplicity of these functions.
  • From a security perspective, Facebook’s approach also sets up a barrier between the external site and Facebook content the users sees. While the like buttons and friend pictures may seem to be simply part of the page, they actually reside in a separate data space from the rest of the page’s content until you choose to authorize access for the other site. This helps protect both the developer and you as a Facebook user.


  • In practice, the deceptive appearance just described may mislead many users into thinking that Facebook is exchanging far more data with other websites than they actually are. This will likely lead to some unwarranted panic.
  • These plugins do rely in many ways on developers providing accurate data, and it’s likely we’ll see these features abused by scam artists and distributors of malware. Currently, the plugins seem to lack certain authentications that may lead to unintended consequences.

OAuth 2.0

As part of a more streamlined development experience, Facebook has launched a technology called OAuth 2.0 for authenticating applications and websites. This replaces the proprietary model the site had been using and should once again simplify building Facebook-enhanced services.


  • This is a major validation for an open standard many companies have helped put together. Many developers will be encouraged to see Facebook choosing OAuth over a proprietary system.
  • As already mentioned, this is another way that Facebook has simplified application development. OAuth should reduce confusion over how other sites can access Facebook information.


  • While perhaps not a completely fair point, I’ll note that the use of OAuth does not diminish the threat of application-based attacks through vulnerabilities known as XSS and CSRF.
  • A number of other sites, such as Twitter, have used OAuth for some time, but this is a major roll-out of a very new version. We may see new security issues related to Facebook’s implementation.

Facebook Credits

At f8, Facebook expanded on their plans to offer a virtual currency system for application payments. Several applications are already using Facebook Credits, but we’ll likely see far more implementations in the near future.


  • Yet again, this system helps reduce friction. For developers, Facebook offers a simple way to include payments without having to worry about a number of implementation details.
  • Also, for users, virtual currency can reduce the hassle of worrying about issues such as international currency conversion.


  • Since Facebook is already facing widespread criticism over privacy issues, some users may hesitate to add credit card information to their Facebook profiles, even if it can only be accessed by Facebook.
  • This service makes Facebook a middleman in potentially millions of dollars of transactions, and could raise liability issues.

Granular Data Access

Though perhaps overlooked, Facebook made good on their promise to include more granular permissions when applications request user information. This feature comes in response to concerns raised by Canada’s Privacy Commissioner last fall. With the new setup, applications will have to individually request private profile fields when a user chooses to authorize.


  • This change will immediately provide more transparency and accountability, since users will see listed out exactly what fields an application will want access to when they authorize.
  • Many users may simply click through anyway, but the new system may raise awareness for many users who did not previously understand the range of information applications could access. Seeing a greedy list of data fields may give users pause.


  • Since announcing granular access last fall, Facebook has radically changed the definition of what constitutes “private” information. Consequently, many of the fields that might have been included in this setup are now considered “public” and thus generally outside access controls.
  • While commendable, this change may not lead to any substantial changes in practice. The model relies on developers limiting their requests, and many users will probably still want access to applications that ask for all information.

Persistent Data Storage

Until this week, applications and Facebook-enabled websites could not store most information accessed via the Facebook API beyond 24 hours. Now, Facebook has removed this time limit, meaning developers can save user data for as long as they want.


  • This change will significantly reduce overhead for both developers and Facebook, since applications will no longer have to exchange data with the service each day a user connects.
  • Users will likely see some performance gains from applications, since they can cache data locally rather than constantly checking with Facebook before rendering content.


  • Facebook applications will now be far more valuable targets for attackers. If a popular application suffers a database compromise, millions of users’ private information could be put at risk. Hacking Facebook directly tends to be difficult, but many applications lack the same level of security.
  • This increases opportunities for behavioral targeting and visitor tracking, since third-party developers will now be able to maintain complete archives of profile information.
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